The Krakatoa Tsunami

NEAR AND FAR-FIELD EFFECTS OF TSUNAMIS GENERATED BY THE PAROXYSMAL ERUPTIONS, EXPLOSIONS, CALDERA COLLAPSES AND MASSIVE SLOPE FAILURES OF THE KRAKATAU VOLCANO IN INDONESIA ON AUGUST 26-27, 1883

by George Pararas-Carayannis

Excellent documentation of the effects of  Krakatoa eruption. Click Here

 

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Krakatoa: The Diary of Captain Lindeman

Capt. Johan Lindeman piloted the ship Governor General Loudon through the Sunda Strait as Krakatoa erupted in 1883. The ship, operated by the Netherlands Indies Steamship Company as a mail steamer and excursion vessel, was based at Batavia.

This account from the captain begins after the ship docked at Anjer at 2 p.m. on Aug. 26, headed for Telok Betong. A few quotes in the summary of events have been taken from accounts written by a member of the ship’s crew and a passenger.

Capt. Johan Lindeman

For Captain Lindeman’s Diary, Click Here

Lava and the Formation of Pahoehoe

Paoehoe is a smooth braided form of lava.

The formation of this structure requires that the molten lava be not subjected to shear forces nor unduly agitated while cooling.

Most of what is happening in this video clip (courtesy National Geographic) will result in pahoehoe as we see here:

Photo: ropy pahoehoe, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

If the lava is stressed as it surfaces or during cooling you get a physical form much like cinders called A’a.

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Here’s a great picture of A’a marching over a bed of pahoehoe, both from the same volcano and with similar chemical make up.

More about Lava here.

Volcano Observatory Websites

Good places to find volcano news…..

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Particularly European: Stromboli Online

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Particularly American: The US Geological Survey

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Canada has volcanoes too, about 200 ‘volcanic features’ as a matter of fact.

But they are kinder and gentler, generally say ‘I’m Sorry’ when they burp, and as a result, very seldom make the news. (Hoodoo Mountain shown above)

Check them out here.

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Image map: Select a volcanic-region to view current activity data pertaining to each region.

For New Zealand’s Volcanic and Earthquake activity, click here

Christchurch Earthquakes in great detail here at http://quake.crowe.co.nz/